Science Mathematics Technology
Education For Building America's Future!

New York State 8th. Grade Science Test
Flash Cards

This list of was created to help you review for the exam in June. The best way to use these facts is to create flash cards. Each day 5 new facts will be added. Check back to update your file

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Back of the Card
1) The cell theory

1)All living things are made of cells
2) Cells carry on life functions
3) Cells produce new cells

2) Plant cells have cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membrane large vacuoles, cell wall made of cellulose, chloroplasts, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum
3) Animal cells have cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membrane, small vacuoles, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, no cell wall, no chloroplasts
4) cells > tissue > organ >system Groups of cells become tissue.
Groups of tissue become organs
Groups of organs become systems
5) Activities of living things

Digestion--Breaking down of food
-- the release of energy from food
Excretion--removal of waste produced by the body
Response and Movement to changes in the environment

6) Metabolism
  • All the changes and activities that take place in a living thing.
  • The sum total of all the chemical processes that take place in an organism.
  • When these chemical processes are completed , Metabolic Waste is created.
7) Activities of cells

Active Transport-the movement of materials through the cell membrane
Reproduction- is achieved by mitosis (splitting of the cell)
Food production--Plants make their own food

8) Mitosis (reproduction) The duplication of the nucleus and the chromosomes when a cell divides. The result is two identical cells.
9) Chemical Change Any change of a substance into one or more other substances. The new substance will have different physical and chemical properties. Example: burning paper
10) Physical Change Any change of a substance that does not create a new substance. Example: broken glass
11) Types of Tissue

Epithelial Tissue---Protects internal and external surfaces of the body.
Muscular Tissue---Provides movement.
Nervous Tissue---Helps a living organism respond to stimuli in the environment.
Connective Tissue---Supports, connects and binds together other types of tissue.

12) Systems in the Human Body Skeletal--Provides form and support Muscular-- Produces movement.
--Changes food into simpler compounds for use by the cells.
Circulatory--Transport material throughout the body.
Respiratory--Breathing--exchange of gases by body
Excretory--Elimination of waste
--Receives and helps the body respond to stimuli
Endocrine--Controls chemicals in the body
13) Classification of living things into kingdoms Monera--single celled organisms that do not have a nucleus.
Protista--one celled or many celled organisms that do have a nucleus
Fungi--Absorb food from dead organisms
Plantae--Plants--They make their food
Animalia--Animals--They cannot make their food
14) Viruses are not cells Viruses do not have a Nucleus, Cytoplasm or Cell Membrane. Viruses do not carry on life processes.
15) Viruses multiply by
  1. They attach themselves to a cell
  2. They inject nucleic acid into the cell
  3. The nucleic acid takes over the cells nucleus and the virus starts to multiply until the cell bursts releasing the new viruses.
16) Bacteria
  • Belong to the kingdom of Monera
  • They have no Nucleus.
  • They reproduce asexually by splitting (Fission)
  • Many have hairlike whips called Flagella which they use for movement

17) Protozoan

(a) Amoeba
(b) Paramecium

  • Members of the kingdom of Protista
  • They move using whip like Flagella or hairlike Cilia(b).
  • They change shape when they move.
  • Reproduce by splitting (fission) or sexually (joining of two parents).
  • They get food by surrounding it(a) or by the food being taken into a mouth groove(b).
18) Algae
  • Members of the kingdom Protista
  • They are plantlike but they are not as complex as real plants. For example they donıt have a vascular system.
  • They are grouped by their color
  • They serve as food to other organisms.
  • Algae produce much of the oxygen we breathe.
19) Fungi
  • They can not make their own food or eat like animals do.
  • They secrete an enzyme which helps them absorb food from decaying organisms.
  • They reproduce sexually and asexually. They can each produce billions of new completed cells called spores.
  • They are natureıs recyclers.
20) The Germ Theory of Disease
  • Germs are the way disease is spread.
  • Germs are any microorganism
  • The theory was developed by Louis Pasteur in the late 19th century.
21)Parts of a Flower.
  1. The Pistil (the female reproductive organ) contains Stigma--Style--Ovary--Ovules
  2. The Stamen(the male reproductive organ) contains. Anther--Filament
  3. Petals
  4. Sepals--These are below the petals
22) The Human Skeleton
  • Supports the body Houses and protects the organs
  • Contains 256 bones
  • Cartilage and fluids cushion the joints
  • Held together by Ligaments
23)The Muscular system
  • Made up of Voluntary and Involuntary muscles.
  • Voluntary muscles are the skeletal muscles needed for movement
  • Involuntary muscles are cardiac (heart) muscles and Smooth Muscles (organs like the stomach muscles)
24) What is the class (a subdivision of a kingdom) of Arthropods
  • They belong to the kingdom Animalia
  • Crustaceans, Arachnids, Insects, Centipedes, and Millipedes belong to this class
25) Characteristics of Insects
  • They have three distinct body parts: The head, the thorax (the midsection) and the abdomen.
  • Adults have six legs.
  • Most insects go through a series of changes (metamorphosis) during their life.
  • Examples: Grasshoppers, ants, bees, butterflies,moths
26)Characteristics of Arachnids
  • They have two body sections
  • 8 legs
  • Examples: Spiders, mites, ticks
27) Characteristics of Crustaceans
  • They have two body sections
  • 10 legs
  • Examples: Lobster, crab, crayfish
28) Characteristics of Centipedes
  • They have a head and many body sections
  • 2 legs on most body sections
  • Example: centipedes (their name means hundred feet)
29) Characteristics of Millipedes
  • They have a head and many body sections
  • 2 legs on most body sections
  • Example: millipedes (their name means thousand feet)
30) What are Invertebrates?
  • Animals without backbones
  • Many have an exoskeleton( a shell covering-like an insect's shell)
  • Types of invertebrates:
    • Sponges
    • Coelenterata-sea anemones,jellyfish
    • Worms
    • Mollusks--All shell fish
    • Echinoderms--Star fish,sand dollars
    • Arthropods
31) What are Vertebrates?
  • Animals with backbones
  • The have an endoskeleton ( a bone frame work.)
  • Types of vertebrates:
    • Fish
    • Sharks
    • Amphibians
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Humans and all mammals
32) Cold-blooded Vertebrates
  • Fish, amphibians and reptiles
  • They can not produce their own body heat. Amphibians and reptiles hibernate part of the year.
  • Fish and some amphibians are also called Chordates which are animals that have a nerve cord and gill slits at some time in its development.
33)Warm-blooded vertebrates
  • Birds and mammals
  • They produce their own body heat. It helps them survive in different environments and stay active throughout the year.
  • All mammals are covered with hair and feed their young with milk.
34) What is a primate?
  • The highest developed Mammals. This group includes monkeys, chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.
  • All Primates have an opposable thumb that can touch the fingers.
  • They can see in three dimensions.
35) Nutrients found in food
  • Carbohydrates--Sugars and starches-- they provide energy
  • Fats-- Saturated fats - solid at room temperature and Unsaturated fats- liquid at room temperature--They store energy for future use.
  • Proteins-- They help to build and maintain your body
  • Water
  • Minerals and Vitamins
36) Calories
  • This is the measure of the energy that food supplies. The average person needs from about 2,500 to 3500 food calories a day.
  • If you eat too many calories each day it will be turned into fat.
  • It is also known as the amount of energy needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius.
37) What are the functions of the digestive system?
  • Breaking down food into smaller pieces.
  • Push food along by contracting muscles in the system.
  • Produce chemicals that help digestion.
  • Absorb the digested food and nutrients into the bloodstream.
  • Absorb water.
38)What role does the mouth play in digestion?
  1. The teeth chop and grind up food.
  2. Saliva from the salivary gland mixes with the food. This makes it easier to swallow food
  3. The tongue helps mix the food with saliva and helps push the food into your throat and down the esophagus
39)What is the Epiglottis?
  • It is a flap of skin located where the esophagus and the windpipe meet.
  • The epiglottis will cover the windpipe and keep food from going down into your lungs.
40) What happens to food as it passes through the rest of the digestive system?
  1. The food enters the stomach and mixes gastric juices (acids and enzymes). This starts to change the food chemically turning it into a soupy mixture.
  2. Next, the food enters the small intestines. Here it mixes with other intestinal juices and break down further. The food is eventually absorbed into the bloodstream here.
  3. The food goes into the Large intestine or Colon. No digestion takes place but water is removed and absorbed by the body. Feces (waste) is stored here until it is eliminated by the body and passes through the anus.
41) The other parts of the digestive system.
  • Liver -- Produces bile
  • Gall bladder -- Stores bile
  • Pancreas -- Produces pancreatic juice
42) Parts of Blood
  • Red blood cells -- solid --They contain a compound called Hemoglobin which is able to carry oxygen to the cells in the body.
  • White blood cells -- solid -- They help fight infection and kill bacteria
  • Platelets -- solid -- They help blood clot. If your blood doesnıt clot, you can bleed to death from a small cut.
  • Plasma -- liquid -- It carries food and waste through the body.
43) Parts of the Circulatory System.
  • Blood Vessels - Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
  • The Heart
44) How are Blood Vessels different?
  • Arteries -- They carry blood away from the heart -- They have thick, elastic, muscular walls. -- They donıt have valves.
  • Veins -- They carry blood to the heart. ---- They have thin, non-elastic walls. -- They have valves
  • Capillaries -- They connect small arteries and small veins -- Extremely thin walls, only one cell thick. This allows materials to be exchange between the blood and cells in the blood. -- They donıt have valves.
45) What path does blood take through the body?
  1. The heart pushes blood into the Arteries leading to the lungs for oxygen.
  2. The blood returns to the heart in veins and is then pumped into the Aorta( the largest Artery).
  3. The Aorta branches out to the entire body to supply it with blood through the Capillaries.
  4. After materials have been exchanged in the Capillaries the blood returns to the heart in Veins.
46) What is Blood Pressure?
  • Blood pressure is the force created by the heart to push the blood through the body.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) makes the heart work harder. This is usually caused by Blood Vessels that are being blocked. The result could lead to heart attack or stroke( blockage of blood to the brain).
47) How does the Heart function?
  • The heart is an involuntary muscle that constantly pumps blood through the body.
  • It is a double pump with both pumps working at the same time.
  • The Right side pumps oxygen poor blood to the lungs.
  • The Left side pumps oxygen rich blood to the rest of the body.
48)Parts of the Respiratory System
  • Nose, Epiglottis, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchial Tubes, Bronchioles, Alveoli and the Diaphragm
49) Function of the nose.
  • This is the air pathway to the Trachea.
  • It is filled with tiny hair and mucus. The hair and mucus clean, and moisten the air.
50) Function of the epiglottis
  • This prevents food from entering the trachea
51) The Trachea
  • The trachea also know as the windpipe is a large tube at the back of the throat which leads to the Bronchi.
  • It is supported by rings of cartilage and lined with hair and mucus
  • Its moist membranes prevent dust and bacteria from entering the lungs.
52) The Bronchi
  • These are located at the bottom of the Trachea inside your chest.
  • They are two short tubes that lead to each of the lungs
  • Air passes through them to the Bronchial Tubes
53) Bronchial Tubes
  • These are large tubes in the lungs.
  • They are located between the Bronchi and Bronchioles.
  • They are also supported by cartilage and have tiny hair and mucus.
54) Bronchioles
  • The smallest tubes in the lungs (approximately one Millimeter in diameter).
  • They are surrounded by smooth muscles.
  • They allow air to pass from the Bronchial Tubes to the Alveoli
55) The Alveoli
  • These are tiny moist thin walled pouches located at the end of the Bronchioles inside the lungs.
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and the lungs here.
56) The Diaphragm
  • This is a muscle located under the lungs.
  • It forces your lungs to inhale and exhale.
57) Parts of the Excretory System.
  • The Kidneys and Urinary system
  • The Skin
  • The Liver
58) The Kidneys and Urinary system
  • Blood is filtered and cleaned in the Kidneys in a part called nephrons.
  • The waste that builds up in the nephrons is called urine.
  • The urine passes down a tube called the Ureter to the Urinary Bladder.
  • The Urinary Bladder is a special sac that stores the urine until it is removed from the body.
  • The Urethra is a tube that carries urine out of the body from the Urinary Bladder.
59) The Skin
  • The Skin is the largest organ of the body.
  • It is composed of different types of cells and tissue which makes up two distinct layers.
  • The Epidermis is the outer layer, which is tough and waterproof. Dead cells are constantly rubbing off.
  • The Dermis is the inner layer containing nerve cells, blood vessels hair follicles and sweat glands.
  • The Sweat Glands release waste called perspiration through opening in the skin called pores.
60) The functions of the Skin
  • It excretes waste ---Perspiration.
  • It is water proof.
  • It also keeps water in the body, keeping the body from drying out.
  • It protects the inside of the body from germs and injury.
  • It helps the body remain cool when it perspires.
  • It contains nerves which help us to feel.
  • The Skin stores body fat which are excess nutrients.
  • It produces the much needed Vitamin D when you are out in the Sun.
61) The functions of the Liver
  • It stores digested food, vitamins, and iron.
  • It helps regulate the amount of sugar in your body.
  • It helps to separate fats and amino acids.
  • It produces plasma proteins.
  • The liver destroys worn out blood cells.
  • It breaks down poisonous substances.
  • It produces bile which is a digestive juice.
62) Parts of the Nervous System
  • The Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves (Neurons)
63) The Central Nervous system
  • This is made up of the Brain and the Spinal Cord.
  • These are delicate organs which are protected by fluid and additional membranes.
64) The Brain
  • It controls actions, both voluntary and involuntary.
  • Interprets information sent to it by the senses.
  • Controls thought and it is responsible for learning.
65)The Spinal Cord
  • This is a thick bundle of nerves which connect to the base of the brain and runs down to the base of your spine.
  • 31 pairs of nerves branch off from the spine to the rest of the body.
  • It is protected by bones called Vertebrae. Vertebrae make up your back bone.
66) Neurons
  • These are nerve cells.
  • Neurons (nerve cells) have three parts: the cell body, the axon and the dendrites.
67) Types of Neurons
  • Sensory Neurons - These receive messages and transfer them to the brain.
  • Motor Neurons - These send messages from the brain to the muscles.
68) The Endocrine System
  • This system is controlled by chemicals produced in the body called Hormones.
  • Hormones are produced in Endocrine Glands.
  • These glands release Hormones directly into the bloodstream.
69)The Endocrine Glands and Their Function
  • Thyroid Gland --- Regulation of the release of energy in the body.
  • Parathyroid Gland --- Control of the bodyıs use of Calcium.
  • Pituitary Gland --- Regulates growth and blood pressure. --- It controls hormone release from other glands and the function of the kidneys.
  • Adrenal Glands --- It increases heartbeat, blood flow and sugar in the blood. --- It also activates the nervous system.
  • Pancreas --- Regulates sugar in the blood stream and allows the liver to store sugar.
  • Ovaries --- Controls the development of female characteristics and reproductive organs.
  • Testes --- Controls the development of male characteristics and reproductive organs.
70) What are Heredity and Genetics?
  • Heredity is the passing of traits from parent to offspring.
  • Genetics is the study of laws of Heredity
71) Types of Hereditary Traits
  • Dominant Traits -- These are strong traits, passed from a parent and more likely to reappear in their offspring.
  • Recessive Traits -- these are weak traits passed from a parent and less likely to reappear in thair offspring.
72) What are the steps in a scientific method?
  1. Make observations
  2. Form a question or problem which you have based on your observations.
  3. Do research on the question you have developed
  4. Form a Hypothesis based on your research
  5. Develop a testing procedure to check your hypothesis
  6. Do the test.
  7. Record your data and analyze the results
  8. Form a conclusion. This may or may not support your Hypothesis.
73) What is a theory?
  • This is a carefully built set of tested ideas that help explain scientific observations.
74) What is a Scientific Law?
  • Scientific Laws are formed after something has repeatedly been proven to be true through scientific experimentation and observation.
75) What is Matter?
  • Is the stuff that makes up everything.
  • The smallest complete unit of matter is the atom.
76) What is mass?
  • This is the amount of matter something contains.
  • It is similar to weight here on Earth. However, weight and mass are different on other planets.
  • A balance is used to find mass.
  • The common unit is the (gram) g
77) What is volume?
  • This is the amount of space matter takes up.
  • To find the volume of a regular objects like a box, you use the formula: Length x Width x Height
  • To find the volume of an irregular shape you can use water displacement; Keep in mind 1 Ml =1 cm3
  • The unit for Volume is cm3
78) What is density?
  • This is the amount of matter you have within a certain space.
  • It is found by using the following formula: Mass/Volume or Mass divided by Volume = Density
  • The common unit for Density is g/cm3
79) The parts of the Atom.
  • Protons -- Have a positive electrical charge
  • Electrons -- Have a negative electrical charge
  • Neutrons -- Have a neutral electrical charge


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