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The Living Environment

Regents Review Sample Exam 2000

Multiple Choice

This exam measures your knowledge of The Living Environment. It contains only part one of the exam,which covers most of the curriculum. When you are finished filling out the test press the "Submit" button.

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1) A biologist in a laboratory reports a new discovery based on experimental results. If the experimental results are valid biologists in other laboratories should be able to

  1. repeat the experiment with a different variable and obtain the same results.
  2. perform the same experiment and obtain different results.
  3. repeat the same experiment and obtain the same results.
  4. perform the same experiment under different experimental conditions and obtain the same results

2) Male reproductive cells from numerous grasshoppers, trout and mice were examined and found to have flagella ( a structure used for locomotion). A valid conclusion that can be made based on this observation is that

  1. only grasshoppers, trout and mice produce reproductive cells with flagella.
  2. all organisms produce male reproductive cells with flagella.
  3. only male organisms produce reproductive cells with flagella.
  4. all male grasshoppers, trout and mice produce reproductive cells with flagella

3) To locate a specimen on a prepared slide with a compound microscope, a student should begin with a low power objective rather than the high-power because the

  1. field of vision is smaller under low power than under high power.
  2. field of vision is larger under low power than under high power.
  3. specimen does not need to be stained for observation under low power but must be stained for observation under high power.
  4. portion of the specimen that can be observed under low power is less than the portion that can be observed under high power.

4) During a long distance run on a hot day, an athlete produces large quantities of sweat. As a result, the kidneys change the rate of urine production. Why is this change important?

  1. Decreased urine production increases the amino acids in the blood.
  2. Increased urine production removes amino acids produced as a result of running.
  3. Decreased urine production allows the body to conserve water.
  4. Increased urine production allows more water to remain in the bloodstream.

5) An important method of communication between cells in an organism is shown in the diagram below.

What is the chemical referred to in the diagram?

  1. a hormone important in maintaining homeostasis.
  2. an enzyme detected by a cell membrane receptor.
  3. DNA necessary for regulating cell functions.
  4. a food molecule taken in by an organism.

6) Molecules A and B come in contact with the cell membrane of the same cell. Molecule A passes through the cell membrane readily, but molecule B does not. Which statement could describe molecules A and B?

  1. Molecule A is a protein, and molecule B is a fat.
  2. Molecule A is a starch and molecule B is a simple sugar.
  3. Molecule A is a amino acid, and molecule B is a simple sugar.
  4. Molecule A is a simple sugar, and molecule B is a starch.

7) What occurs during the digestion of starch?

  1. Specific enzymes break down starch into amino acids.
  2. Specific hormones break down starch into simple sugar.
  3. Specific hormones break down starch into complex sugar.
  4. Specific enzymes break down starch into simple sugar.

8) When the bacterium Serratia marcescens is grown on a sterile culture medium in a petri dish at 30 0C, the bacterial colonies are cream colored. When this same bacterium is cultured under identical conditions, except at a temperature of 25 0C, the colonies are brick red. This difference in color is most likely due to the

  1. type of nutrients in the culture medium.
  2. sterilization of the culture medium.
  3. effect of temperature on the expression of the gene for color.
  4. effect of colony size on the syntesis of color pigments.

9) A colony of bacteria is allowed to reproduce for 16 generations. A scientist examines the colony at the end of this time and notes that all the individuals are almost identical in all characteristics. This evidence suggests that the bacteria

  1. did not receive the proper nutrients.
  2. reproduced sexually.
  3. exchanged genetic material.
  4. reproduced asexually.

10) A woman has a gene that causes a visual disorder. To prevent the disorder from appearing in her children, the defective gene would have to be repaired in the mother's

  1. nervous system
  2. reproductive cells
  3. eye
  4. uterus

11) Which DNA strand represents the complementary base
sequence to the portion of a DNA strand represented in the
diagram at the right?

1 2 3 4


12) The presence of DNA is important for cellular metabolic activities because DNA

  1. directs the production of proteins.
  2. is a structural component of cell membranes.
  3. directly increase the solubility of nutrients.
  4. Is the major component of cytoplasm.

13) Exposure to cosmic rays, X rays, ultraviolet rays, and radiation from radioactive substances may promote

  1. the production of similar organisms
  2. new inheritable characteristics.
  3. an increase in population size
  4. a change from sexual to asexual reproduction.

14) The DNA sequences found in two different species are 95% the same. This similarity suggests that these species

  1. are evolving into a single species.
  2. may have similar evolutionary histories.
  3. contain all the same proteins.
  4. have the same number of mutations.

15) According to modern evolutionary theory, genes responsible for new traits that help a species survive in a particular environment will usually

  1. not change in frequency.
  2. decrease gradually in frequency.
  3. decrease rapidly in frequency
  4. increase in frequency

16) Thousands of years ago, a large flock of hawks was driven from its normal migratory route by a severe storm. The birds scattered and found shelter on two distant islands, as shown on the map below. The environment of island A is very similar to the hawks' original nesting region. The environment of island B is very different from that of island A. The hawks have survived on these islands to the present day with no migration between populations.

Which statement most accurately predicts the present day condition of these island hawk populations?

  1. The hawks that landed on island B have evolved more than those on island A.
  2. The Hawks that landed on island A have evolved more than those on island B.
  3. The populations on islands A and B have undergone identical mutations
  4. The hawks on island A have given rise to many new species.

17) Several white potato plants are grown from pieces of a potato placed in the ground. This method of reproduction is most similar to

  1. sexual reproduction.
  2. cloning
  3. genetic engineering
  4. zygote formation

18) Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the evolution of a species?

  1. Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike.
  2. Meiosis provides for genetic variation in the gametes produced by an organism.
  3. Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis.
  4. The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction.

19) Which event does not occur between stages 2 and 11 in the process represented in the diagram below?

Early Embryonic Development of a Mouse
  1. a decrease in cell size
  2. DNA replication
  3. mitotic cell division
  4. fertilization

20) The diagram below represents the male reproductive system in humans.

If the structure labeled X were cut and tied off at the arrow, which change would occur immediately?

  1. Hormones would no longer be produced.
  2. Sperm would no longer be produced.
  3. Sperm would be produced but no longer released from the body.
  4. Urine would be produced but no longer released from the bladder.

21) The table below shows the rate of water loss in three different plants.

Liters of Water
Lost Per Day
Cactus 0.02
Potato Plant 1.00
Apple Tree 19.00

One reason each plant loses a different amount of water is that each has

  1. different numbers of guard cells which help to maintain homeostasis.
  2. different numbers of insulin secreting cells that regulate water levels.
  3. the same number of chloroplasts but different rates of Photosynthesis.
  4. the same rate of photosynthesis but different numbers of chloroplasts.

22) Two test tubes are filled with a solution of bromthymol blue. A Student exhaled through a straw into each tube, and the bromthymol blue turned yellow. An aquatic plant was placed into each tube and the tubes were corked. One tube was placed in the dark, and one was placed in direct sunlight. The yellow solution in the tube in sunlight turned blue, while the one in the dark remained yellow. Which statement best explains why the solution in the tube placed in sunlight returned to a blue color?

  1. Oxygen was used for photosynthesis.
  2. Oxygen was removed by respiration.
  3. Carbon dioxide was removed by photosynthesis
  4. Carbon dioxide was produced by respiration.

23) Cyanide is a poison that limits the ability of an animal cell to manufacture ATP in a cell containing a small amount of cyanide, which process would be least affected?

  1. movement
  2. cell division
  3. active transport
  4. diffusion

24) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both

  1. are produced by nerve cells
  2. are highly specific in their actions
  3. slow the rates of chemical reactions.
  4. are involved in digestion.

25) The graph below shows data on the average life expectancy of humans.

The change in life expectancy from 1910 to 1970 is most likely the result of

  1. an increase in poor land use management that affected the quality of topsoil.
  2. the introduction of technology that had a negative impact on air quality.
  3. the development and introduction of new techniques to control disease.
  4. a widespread increase in the presence of lead and other heavy metals in water supplies.

26) A person with AIDS is likely to develop infectious diseases because the virus that causes AIDS

  1. destroys cancer cells.
  2. damages the immune system.
  3. increases the rate of antibody production.
  4. Increases the rate of microbe destruction.

27) Which change would usually increase competition for food among the squirrel population in a certain area?

  1. an epidemic of rabies among squirrels.
  2. an increase in the number of squirrels killed on the highways.
  3. an increase in the number of hawks that prey on squirrels.
  4. a temporary increase in the squirrel reproduction rate.

Base your answers to question 28 and 29 on the table below, which shows the type of food consumed by various animals in a community, and on your knowledge of biology

Animals in Food Consumed in the Community
the Community Shrews Grasshoppers Hawks Snakes Plants
Shrews   X      
Hawks X     X  
Grasshoppers         X
Spiders   X      
Snakes X        


28) Under normal conditions, which organisms in this community would have the greatest amount of stored energy?

  1. Grasshoppers
  2. Snakes
  3. Spiders
  4. Hawks

29) Which animal in the community would be classified as a herbivore?

  1. Snakes
  2. Hawks
  3. Spiders
  4. Grasshoppers

30) The diagram below illustrates the relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.

In addition to sunlight, which factor would need to be added to make this a stable ecosystem?

  1. predators
  2. prey
  3. decomposers
  4. herbivores

Base your answer to question 31 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

31) If the environment were to change dramatically or a new plant disease were to break out, which plant type would have the greatest chance of survival?

  1. domestic wheat
  2. wild wheat
  3. domestic corn
  4. wild corn

32) The use of technology often alters the equilibrium in ecosystems. With which statement would most scientists agree?

  1. Humans should use their knowledge of ecology to consider the needs of future generations of humans and other species.
  2. Humans should develop new technology to expand the influence of humans on natural communities.
  3. Humans should learn how to control every aspect of the environment so that damage due to technology will be spread evenly.
  4. Humans should develop the uninhabited parts of the Earth for human population expansion.

Base your answer to question 33 on the sequence of diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.

33) If no human intervention or natural disaster occurs, by the year 2050 this area will most likely be a

  1. lake
  2. swamp
  3. desert
  4. forest

34) Which human activity is most responsible for the other three human activities?

  1. increasing demand for food
  2. increasing loss of farmland
  3. increasing human population
  4. increasing air pollution

35) Endangered peregrine falcons have been bred in captivity and released in areas where they prey on pigeons and rodents. These activities are examples of

  1. species preservation and biological pest control.
  2. overhunting and direct harvesting.
  3. recycling and technological development.
  4. conservation and habitat destruction.

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