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Biology Regents Review Exam

January 2000

This exam measures your knowledge of Biology. It contains only part one of the exam,which covers most of the curriculum. When you are finished filling out the test press the "Submit" button.

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1) Which activity is necessary for the survival of a species of amoeba but is not necessary for the survival of an individual member of that species?

  1. elimination of water by a contractile vacuole.
  2. transport of oxygen through the cell membrane.
  3. ingestion of nutrients.
  4. process of binary fission.

2) Which term is defined as all the chemical reactions that are required to sustain life?

  1. metabolism
  2. regulation
  3. nutrition
  4. synthesis

3) A classification scheme is shown below.

Dolphin, house cat, song-bird, lynx wolf, earthworm, butterfly, hydra
Dolphin, house cat, songbird, lynx wolf
Genus- Felis
house cat, lynx

Species- domestica

house cat


This classification scheme indicates that the house cat is most closely related to the:

  1. dolphin.
  2. songbird.
  3. lynx.
  4. wolf.

4) A structure that performs a specialized function within a cell is known as

  1. a tissue
  2. an organelle
  3. an organ
  4. a system

5) Which organism is considered an exception to the cell theory because it has a noncellular structure?

  1. alga
  2. bacterium
  3. virus
  4. moss

6) Which chemical compound makes up the greatest percentage of a protozoan?

  1. nucleic acid
  2. glucose
  3. fatty acid
  4. water

7) Which factor does not alter the rate of hydrolysis of maltose?

  1. temperature of the environment of the reaction
  2. pH of the environment of the reaction
  3. size of the substrate molecule
  4. number of enzyme molecules present

8) One immediate cause of a decrease in the rate of photosynthesis is a reduction in the availability of

  1. carbon dioxide
  2. carbon monoxide
  3. hydrogen
  4. nitrogen

9) The function of the gastric caecum in a grasshopper is most similar to the function of the

  1. nephridium in an earthworm
  2. pancreas in a human
  3. anal pore in a paramecium
  4. nerve net in a hydra

10) Which structure is most directly responsible for maintaining homeostasis in all cells?

  1. chloroplast
  2. cell membrane
  3. centriole
  4. cell wall

11) Vascular tissue that transport water in leaves connects directly to

  1. meristems in the root tip
  2. pistils in the flower
  3. root hairs in the epidermis
  4. xylem in the stem

12) Which two organisms represented below are heterotrophic?

  1. A and B
  2. B and C
  3. C and E
  4. D and E

13) Which three processes are indicated by the arrows in the diagram below?

  1. ingestion, diffusion, and excretion
  2. ingestion, digestion, and egestion
  3. cyclosis, meiosis, and mitosis
  4. diffusion, active transport, and cyclosis

14) A biologist analyzed the liquid in the niphridia of earthworms and the liquid in the nephrons of humans. The liquid found in both organisms was most likely composed of water containing

  1. sugar and uric acid
  2. sugar and ammonia
  3. salts and urea
  4. salts and amino acids

15) Which letter in the diagram below indicates the structure that is most closely associated with excretion?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

16) Which process is correctly paired with the waste it produces?

  1. respiration- methane
  2. protein metabolism- ammonia
  3. dehydration synthesis- carbon dioxide
  4. hydrolysis- urea

17) In grasshoppers and humans, locomotion is accomplished by means of

  1. the interaction of muscles and jointed appendages
  2. jointed chitinous appendages
  3. a cartilaginous endoskeleton
  4. the interaction of muscles and an exoskeleton

18) During aerobic respiration, the chemical energy of a glucose molecule is gradually released, producing ATP and

  1. NH3 and O2
  2. NH3 and CO2
  3. H2O and O2
  4. H2O and CO2

19) In trees, shrubs and other woody plants, the exchange of CO2 and O2 with the environment may occur through structures known as

  1. spiracles
  2. anthers
  3. lenticels
  4. rhizoids

20) Small hairs on the legs of certain insects have the ability to detect chemicals. These hair function as

  1. receptors
  2. effectors
  3. stimuli
  4. responses

21)Which organism has a primitive brain, a ventral cord, and antennae?

  1. bryophyte
  2. grasshopper
  3. chordate
  4. jellyfish

22) After several days near a window, a house plant began to grow toward the window. This growth pattern occurred because auxins

  1. prevent the growth of cells on the light side of the plant.
  2. stimulate the growth of cells on the dark side of the plant
  3. are activated when they are exposed to light
  4. are distributed evenly throughout the plant stem

23) Which type of digestion occurs in the mouth when an individual chews a piece of bread?

  1. mechanical digestion, only
  2. chemical digestion, only
  3. both mechanical and chemical digestion
  4. neither mechanical nor chemical digestion

24)Which structure is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane that warms, moistens, and filters air?

  1. pharnyx
  2. alveolus
  3. epiglottis
  4. nasal cavity

25) Which transport structures have specialized regions for filtering out bacteria and dead cells?

  1. arteries
  2. capillaries
  3. veins
  4. lymph vessels

26) In humans, the ureter transports urine from the

  1. blood to the kidney
  2. liver to the kidney
  3. kidney to the urinary bladder
  4. urinary bladder to outside the body

27) If a motor neuron involved in a reflex arc is damaged, which event in that arc is least likely to occur?

  1. contraction of a muscle.
  2. stimulation of a interneuron.
  3. reception of a stronger stimulus by the sense organ.
  4. secretion of a neurotransmitter by the sensory neuron.

28) Which system is most closely associated with the production of regulatory chemicals by glands?

  1. nervous.
  2. respiratory.
  3. circulatory.
  4. endocrine.

29) The inelastic connective tissue that attaches a muscle in the lower leg to a heel bone is known as

  1. a tendon.
  2. a ligament.
  3. cartilage.
  4. epidermis.

30) Which process results in offspring with a genetic makeup identical to that of the parent?

  1. fusion of gametes
  2. vegetative propagation
  3. external fertilization
  4. meiotic cell division

31) The uncontrolled division of certain body cells, which then invade the surrounding tissues and interfere with normal functioning of the body, is known as

  1. cancer
  2. regeneration
  3. cleavage
  4. oogenesis

32) Corals reproduce by forming multicellular outgrowths from the body wall that detach and develop into independent organisms. which statement most closely describes this form of reproduction in another organism?

  1. Molds reproduce by sporulation.
  2. Hydras reproduce by budding.
  3. Paramecia reproduce by binary fission.
  4. Maple trees reproduce by seed formation.

33) Which reproductive process is correctly paired with the structure in which it occurs?

  1. meiosis -- liver
  2. fertilization -- gonad
  3. gametogenesis -- testis
  4. pollination -- stamen

34) A McIntosh apple tree branch was grafted to an Ida Red apple tree. The fruit produced by the newly grafted piece will be

  1. McIntosh apples, only
  2. Ida Red apples only
  3. 50% McIntosh apples and 50% Ida Red apples
  4. apples are a blend of McIntosh and Ida Red

35) Why is the release of 2,000 to 10,000 eggs by a female salmon during one season considered a favorable reproductive adaptation?

  1. External fertilization increases the chance of sperm reaching the eggs.
  2. Overproduction decreases the rate of embryo development.
  3. The species is declining, so the reproductive rate has increased.
  4. Unfavorable environmental conditions may destroy gametes.

36) Animals that produce embryos that are born small and relatively immature and must complete their development in a pouch are known as

  1. hermaphrodites
  2. placental mammals
  3. marsupials
  4. invertebrates

37) The brightly colored, highly scented flowers on a rosebush are an adaptation for

  1. wind pollination
  2. insect pollination
  3. the production of spores
  4. nutrition for developing rose embryos

38) Using the results of his experiments with pea plant crosses, Gregor Mendel discovered

  1. the principles of dominance, segregation and independent assortment.
  2. that pea plants develop mutations after exposure to radiation.
  3. intermediate inheritance and gene linkage.
  4. That DNA is involved in the inheritance of dominant traits

39) In a certain variety of chicken, the genes for black feather color and the genes for white feather color are codominant. This variety of chicken will most likely have

  1. three possible phenotypes for feather color.
  2. white feather color only.
  3. only two genotypes for feather color.
  4. black feather color only.

40) In fruit flies, red eye color (R) is dominant and white eye color (r) is recessive. The allele for eye color is carried on the X-chromosome. Which cross would most likely produce 50% white-eyed males and 50% red-eyed males?

  1. XRXR x XRy
  2. XRXR x XrY
  3. XRXr x XrY
  4. XrXr x XRY

41) A mutation may be passed on to future generations if it occurs within specialized cells of the

  1. stomach
  2. liver
  3. pancreas
  4. ovary

42) An example of a mutagenic agent is

  1. an amino acid
  2. ultraviolet radiation
  3. acetylcholine
  4. maltase

43) Kernel color in corn is a trait determined by two alleles. The Dominant allele (P) produces a purple color, and the recessive allele (p) produces a yellow color. The diagram below shows an ear of corn produced by crossing two corn plants. The shaded kernels are purple, and the unshaded ones are yellow.

The yellow kernels can best be described as

  1. homozygous dominant
  2. heterozygous
  3. hybrid
  4. homozygous recessive

44) The results of a genetic process are represented in the diagram below

Which process most likely produced these results?

  1. chromosomal mutation during mitosis
  2. nondisjunction during meiosis
  3. independent assortment during mitosis
  4. crossing-over during meiosis

45) A DNA nucleotide may contain

  1. deoxyribose, cytosine, and a lipid
  2. deoxyribose, thymine, and a phosphate group
  3. ribose, uracil, and a polypeptide
  4. ribose, adenine, and thymine

46) Fossils of an extinct species of giant armadillo were found to be similar to a smaller species of armadillo presently inhabiting the same region. This similarity could best be explained on the basis of

  1. evolution from older forms
  2. inheritance of acquired characteristics
  3. use and disuse
  4. the heterotroph hypothesis

47) A study of the position and shape of the bones in the forelimbs of a flying squirrel, a bat, and a beaver showed that the beaver and the flying squirrel appear to be most clearly related. This determination was most likely based on a study in the field of comparative

  1. embryology
  2. cytology
  3. anatomy
  4. biochemistry

48) By simulating conditions thought to have existed on primitive Earth, Stanley Miller found that these conditions could result in the formation of

  1. organic compounds
  2. radioactive materials
  3. plant tissues
  4. animal embryos

49)The diagram below shows a comparison of nitrogen base sequences in the DNA of some organisms to those of a human.

According to this diagram, humans may be most closely related to the

  1. ancestral primate
  2. chimpanzee
  3. gorilla
  4. orangutan

50) August Weismann conducted a series of experiments involving the removal of the tails from several generations of mice. Which concept of evolution did he help to disprove?

  1. natural selection
  2. gradualism
  3. inheritance of acquired characteristics
  4. geographic isolation

51) Modern evolutionary theory consists of the concepts of Darwin modified by knowledge concerning

  1. overpopulation
  2. the genetic basis of variation
  3. survival of the fittest
  4. competition

52) According to the heterotroph hypothesis, which gas was added to the environment by the first heterotrophs?

  1. nitrogen
  2. oxygen
  3. water vapor
  4. carbon dioxide

53) Which human activity would most likely result in the addition of an organism to the endangered species list?

  1. cover cropping
  2. use of pollution controls
  3. use of erosion controls
  4. habitat destruction

54) An aquarium ecosystem is shown below.

A community in this aquarium consists of the

  1. plants and gravel
  2. fish, water, and snails
  3. fish, plants, and snails
  4. water and gravel

55) The first organism in most natural food chains is

  1. a herbivore
  2. a decomposer
  3. photosynthetic
  4. carnivorous

56) Which factor is not necessary for an ecosystem to be self sustaining?

  1. a constant source of energy
  2. living systems that incorporate energy into organic molecules
  3. a cycling of materials between organisms and their environment
  4. an equal number of producers and consumers

57) The diagram below provides some information concerning an ecosystem.

Which title is most appropriate for the diagram?

  1. Energy Flow and Material Cycles in an Ecosystem
  2. Evolution in an Ecosystem
  3. Succession in an Ecosystem
  4. The water Cycle in an Ecosystem

58) The diagram below shows an example of interdependence among aquatic organisms. During the day the organisms either use or give off substance A or B as shown by the arrows.

Which substances are represented by A and B?

  1. A represents oxygen and B represents carbon dioxide
  2. A represents oxygen and B represents carbohydrates
  3. A represents nitrogen and B represents carbon dioxide
  4. A represents carbon dioxide and B represents oxygen

59) The chart below lists four groups of factors relating to an ecosystem.

Group A Group B Group C Group D

Green plants


Green plants
Carbon Dioxide


Which group contains only abiotic factors?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

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