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Biology Regents Review Exam

January 26, 1999

This exam measures your knowledge of Biology. It contains only part one of the exam,which covers most of the curriculum. When you are finished filling out the test press the "Submit" button.

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1) In which process are simple materials chemically combined to form more complex materials?

  1. synthesis
  2. pinocytosis
  3. hydrolysis
  4. cyclosis

2) Which reactions in the list below are associated with metabolism?

A) cellular reactions that release energy
B) photosynthesis reactions that store energy
C) muscle reactions that use energy

  1. A and B, only
  2. B and C, only
  3. C and A, only
  4. A,B,and C

3) Which scientist is correctly paired with his contribution to biological science?

1) Miller--first to observe mitotic cell division
2) Linnaeus--devised a binomial system for naming organisms
3) Darwin--invented the electron microscope
4) Watson--first to observe cells

4) The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules.


#of Atoms

#of Atoms
#of Atoms
#of Atoms

Which molecule can be classified as organic?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

5) According to the five-kingdom classification system, which two groups of organisms are classified as protists?

  1. bryophytes and tracheophytes
  2. coelenterates and annelids
  3. protozoa and algae
  4. bacteria and chordates

6) The shape, size and internal structure of the mitochondrion have been revealed by

  1. studies of the chemical activity of enzymes
  2. the development of wet-mount techniques
  3. electron-microscope studies
  4. detailed studies of chromosomes

7) Lipase, Maltese, and protease are members of a group of catalysts known as

  1. enzymes
  2. hormones
  3. carbohydrates
  4. fats

8) In the equations below, A represents a food substance, and B represents its completely digested end product. Which equation represents the change that takes place as a result of chemical digestion?

  1. A + water-->A+A+A
  2. A + water-->B+B+B
  3. B+B+B-->A + water
  4. A+A+A-->A + water

9) Which process is represented by the arrow in the diagram below?

Energy stored
in food
----------> Energy Available for Use by living Organisms
  1. growth
  2. respiration
  3. regulation
  4. excretion

10) In the setup shown below, which color light will cause the plant to produce the smallest number of gas bubbles?

  1. red
  2. orange
  3. blue
  4. green

11) Which organisms are not able to make organic molecules from inorganic raw materials?

  1. mushrooms
  2. algae
  3. bryophytes
  4. tracheophytes

12) The diagram below represents a white blood cell engulfing some bacteria.

The structure labeled X is most likely a

  1. nucleus
  2. centriole
  3. ribosome
  4. vacuole

13) Freshwater protozoans excrete ammonia and mineral salts by means of

  1. diffusion through the cell membrane
  2. small vacuoles released through the cell membrane
  3. small tubes leading from the cytoplasm to openings in the cell membrane
  4. contraction of food vacuoles

14) Which organism lacks a specialized transport system?

  1. earthworm
  2. grasshopper
  3. human
  4. hydra

15) Which sequence best represents the pathway of a gas as it passes from the atmosphere into a leaf?

  1. guard cell--> xylem--> palisade cell
  2. stomate--> air space--> spongy cell
  3. air space--> phloem--> palisade cell
  4. cuticle--> epidermis--> spongy cell

16) The diagram below represents a unicellular organism.

This organism is able to survive without a specialized respiratory system because

  1. it possesses a nucleus that controls the synthesis of respiratory enzymes
  2. its vacuoles release oxygen from stored nutrients
  3. its respiratory surface is in direct contact with a watery environment
  4. it possesses chloroplasts that produce oxygen when exposed to sunlight

17) The lenticels of certain plants have the same function as

  1. anthers
  2. phloem
  3. xylem
  4. stomates

18) When a chemical is added to a slide containing a paramecium, the paramecium moves away from the chemical. This movement is an example of

  1. passive transport of chemicals
  2. a response to a stimulus
  3. a tropic response
  4. active transport of water

19) Which gas is excreted as a waste product of autotrophic nutrition in maple trees?

  1. nitrogen
  2. oxygen
  3. carbon dioxide
  4. methane

20) To aid in the transmission of an impulse, neurotransmitters are secreted

  1. along an axon
  2. by a dendrite
  3. by a cyton
  4. into a synapse

21) Plants bend toward light because cells on the dark side of the stem elongate. This elongation is influenced by hormones known as

  1. auxins
  2. anitgens
  3. adenines
  4. amylases

22) Locomotion in chordates may be described as the interaction between

  1. an endoskeleton and muscles
  2. tentacles and contractile fibers
  3. cilia and an exoskeleton
  4. chitinous appendages and muscles

23) Which lettered structure in the diagram below produces enzymes for the digestion of nutrients in the small intestines?

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

24) Which two activities in the chart below best describe the process of transport?

A Walking from one place to another
B Inhaling air into the trachea
C Absorbing glucose into villi
D Distributing nutrients by means of
blood vessels
  1. A and C
  2. B and C
  3. C and D
  4. A and D

25) Which part of the blood is correctly paired with its function?

  1. red blood cells--fight infection
  2. plasma--transports wastes and hormones
  3. platelets--produce antibodies
  4. white blood cells--carry oxygen

26) Choking on food is most likely caused by an interference with the proper functioning of the

  1. diaphragm
  2. nasal cavity
  3. bronchial tubes
  4. epiglottis

27) As urine is excreted, muscle contractions of the urinary bladder will cause the urine to pass into the

  1. ureter
  2. glomerulus
  3. urethra
  4. Bowman's capsule

28) Which statement best describes the chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands?

  1. They are secreted in one place and most often act at another.
  2. They are distributed by the nervous system.
  3. They are found only in vertebrates.
  4. They are secreted into specialized ducts for transport.

29) In the knee, the ends of the leg bones are held together primarily by

  1. ligaments
  2. smooth muscles
  3. tendons
  4. cardiac muscle

30) Which two diagrams show organisms reproducing by vegetative propagation?

  1. A and B
  2. B and C
  3. C and D
  4. A and D

31) Which mitotic event in the chart below occurs after the other three events have taken place?

A Appearance of spindle fibers
B Separation of chromatids by the action of spindle fibers
C Disintergration of the nuclear membrane
D Replication of chromosomes
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

32) The production of motile monoploid gametes takes place in

  1. ureters
  2. ovaries
  3. male gonads
  4. gastric glands

33) The series of cellular divisions by which the zygote becomes a multicellular embryo is known as

  1. gastrulation
  2. cleavage
  3. meiosis
  4. disjunction

34) Which term best describes most organisms whose eggs are fertilized externally?

  1. terrestrial autotrophs
  2. terrestrial heterotrophs
  3. aquatic autotrophs
  4. aquatic heterotrophs

35) Which organisms do not receive direct nourishment from the parent during their internal development stage?

  1. marsupials
  2. mice
  3. humans
  4. cows

36) Scientists have been able to produce mutations in plants by irradiating their seeds with gamma rays. The results of one of the mutations was a plant that could not produce flowers. Because of this lack of flowers, the plant would not be able to

  1. carry out photosynthesis
  2. transport water
  3. reproduce sexually
  4. grow more than a few inches tall

37) A student placed some seeds on a moist paper towel in a petri dish. Another petri dish was filled with water and seeds. The petri dishes were covered and exposed to identical experimental conditions. After several days, the student noticed that the seeds submerged in water did not germinate, but those on the paper towel did. The best explanation for these results is that the seeds

  1. on the towel were warmer than those under water.
  2. on the towel were able to receive more light.
  3. submerged in water built up carbon dioxide.
  4. submerged in the water did not receive enough oxygen.

38) The pedigree chart below shows the pattern of in heritance for a sex-linked trait.

If this couple has another son, what is the probability that he will exhibit this sex-linked trait?

  1. 0%
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 100%

39) Bacteria that produce colonies containing a red pigment were distributed on nutrient agar and exposed to ultraviolet light for several days. The colonies that developed were red, with the exception of one colony that was white. The appearance of this white bacterial colony most likely resulted from

  1. a mutation
  2. codominance
  3. synapsis
  4. multiple alleles

40) A garden hose that had been lying on a green lawn for several days was removed. Which statement best explains the presence of yellow grass in the area where the hose had been?

  1. The lack of sunlight under the hose altered the genotype of the grass.
  2. Gene expression is not affected by the environment.
  3. The hose altered genes in the grass, causing the grass to switch from autotrophic to heterotrophic nutrition
  4. The lack of sunlight under the hose affected chlorophyll production.

41) Artificial selection is illustrated by

  1. random mating taking place in a population.
  2. the appearance of a new species on an isolated island.
  3. a gardener producing a new hybrid by cross-pollinating plants.
  4. wind assisting the pollination of grass in a field.

42) The gene-chromosome theory states that

  1. chromosomes from both parents always have identical genes.
  2. genes exist at definite loci in a linear sequence on chromosome.
  3. homologous chromosomes do not have alleles.
  4. Mendel's principles no longer apply to genetics.

43) All of the offspring produced in a cross involving a brown mink and a silver-blue mink are brown. When these brown mink offspring were crossed with each other, the ratio of brown to silver blue was 3:1. The results of these crosses are best explained by

  1. independent assortment and crossing-over
  2. dominance, segregation, and recombination.
  3. codominance,segregation, and recombination.
  4. recombination and intermediate inheritance.

44) In many breeds of cattle, the polled condition (absence of horns) is dominant over the presence of horns, and homozygous red coat color crossed with homozygous white coat color produces roan. Which cross will produce only horned roan offspring?

  1. polled red x horned white
  2. horned roan x horned roan
  3. horned red x horned white
  4. polled roan x horned roan

45) Which components of DNA are held together by weak hydrogen bonds?

  1. phosphate and adenine
  2. phosphate and deoxyribose
  3. thymine and deoxyribose
  4. cytosine and guanine

46) Biologically similar organisms have similar DNA and proteins. This statement supports the concept of

  1. diversity in species.
  2. acquired characteristics
  3. use and disuse
  4. organic evolution

47) The embryos of fish, chickens, and pigs have gill slits and a tail. The presence of these features suggests that

  1. all these animals can swim.
  2. pigs developed from chicken.
  3. these animals may have had a common ancestor.
  4. gill slits and tails are required for embryonic development.

48) Characteristics of a species that make its members better able to live and reproduce in their environment are known as

  1. favorable adaptations
  2. homologous structures
  3. abiotic factors
  4. biotic factors

49) A large population of houseflies was sprayed with a newly developed, fast acting insecticide. The appearance of some houseflies that are resistant to this insecticide supports the concept that

  1. species traits tend to remain constant.
  2. biocides cause mutations.
  3. variation exists within a species.
  4. the environment does not change.

50) Darwin's studies of finches on the Galapagos Islands suggest that the finches' differences in beak structure were most directly due to

  1. acquired characteristics in the parent finches
  2. the size of the island where the finches live.
  3. mating behaviors of the different finch species.
  4. adaptations of the finches to different environments.

51) The fresh remains of an unknown vertebrate were discovered in the Amazon Basin.To help determine the vertebrate's possible relationship to other animals, scientists compared the external structure of its digestive organs to that of other vertebrates. This procedure is typical of work done in the field of comparative

  1. cytology
  2. anatomy
  3. embryology
  4. biochemistry

52) Which concept is most closely related to the cartoon shown below?

"Today's recipe for what I call 'the origin of life'
requires a bit of hydrogen, nitrogen,compounds of
sulfur, carbon, a smattering of metals: iron, magnesium..."

  1. the heterotroph hypothesis
  2. regeneration
  3. speciation
  4. survival of the fittest

53) A student set up a terrarium containing moist soil, several plants, and snails. The terrarium was placed in a sunny area. Which factor is not essential for the maintenance of the terrarium?

  1. a constant source of energy.
  2. a living system capable of incorporating energy into organic compounds.
  3. a cycling of materials between organisms and their environment.
  4. the introduction of another heterotroph into the terrarium.


54) A moss covered log is overturned by a hungry bear looking for insects to eat. The bear disturbs an ant colony, and chipmunks leave the hollow log to search for another home in the forest. Which relationship do these organisms have with each other?

  1. They are all of the same species.
  2. They all require the same type of food.
  3. They are part of a community.
  4. They are abiotic factors in a forest.

55) The diagram below represents a food web.

Which statement is supported by the information shown?

  1. Foxes, snakes, and sparrows are secondary consumers.
  2. Snakes eat grass, grasshoppers, and frogs.
  3. Rabbits, mice, and grasshoppers contain the greatest amount of stored energy.
  4. Sparrows and hawks are omnivores.

56) Humans often have not given much thought to the long-term impacts of technological change. As the 20th. Century comes to a close, most scientists would agree that humans should

  1. use knowledge of ecology to consider the needs of future generations of humans and other species.
  2. use new technology to expand human influence on all natural communities.
  3. learn how to control every aspect of environment so that damage due to technology will be spread evenly.
  4. develop the uninhabited parts of Earth for the human population increase.

57) Respiration and photosynthesis have the least effect on the cycling of

  1. carbon
  2. nitrogen
  3. oxygen
  4. hydrogen

58) The diagram below represents an ecological process.

Which statement is most closely related to the process shown in the diagram?

  1. Climax communities do not develop in aquatic habitats.
  2. Ecosystems tend to change with time until a stable system is formed.
  3. Humans have modified the environment through the use of technology and pollution.
  4. Succession involves changes in plant species only.

59) An activity that would help to ensure a suitable environment for future generations in the increased use of

  1. fossil fuels
  2. pesticides
  3. biological controls
  4. chemical dumps

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